Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, had mercifully appeared at Yogpeeth (in Mayapur, West Bengal, India) about 500 years ago (in the year 1486 AD), to bless us with the most wonderful,deep and ecstatic pastimes of Gaura lila. In this article, we shall summarize His life, teachings and biography of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in a nutshell. Eminent brahmana, Sri Jagannatha Misra and Saci devi were the proud parents of Lord Chaitanya. The identity of Lord Chaitanya as the Supreme Personality of Godhead can be verified in a number of Vedic scriptures like Srimad Bhagavatam, Mahabharata, Garuda Purana, Nrsimha Purana, Padma purana, Bhavishya Purana, Narada Purana etc. We are quoting just two of such references below, for the pleasure of the devotees.
aham purno bhavisyami yuga sandhyau visesatah
mayapure navadvipe bhavisyami saci sutah
Translation – In the future, in first part of Kali yuga, I shall appear in my complete spiritual form at Mayapura, Navadvipa and become the son of Saci.
The mission of the Lord,along with a description of His golden complexion and how He descends along with His confidential associates in this age of Kali ,to inaugurate the Sankirtana Yajna is revealed in Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata purana) –
Krishna varnam tvishakrishnam sangopangastra-parsadam
yajnaih sankirtana prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah
(Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.32)
Lord Chaitanya’s life and teachings have been instrumental in uniting people across different nationalities, across different backgrounds – be it social, economic, linguistic, cultural. His teachings have been an example of such unity that the United Nations would be very proud of. Sri Chaitanya’s teachings have inspired men and women all across the world, to be united in this common cause, to forget their external differences and help each other out in their journey of life – a journey which is as important to the rich as it is to the poor, which is as important to an American as it is to an Indian; a journey which is as important to a Chinese as it is to a Australian. It is not too uncommon these days to hear the chants of ‘Hare Krishna’ ‘Hare Krishna’ in the streets of London, Paris, Tokyo or New Delhi. Congregational chanting of ‘Hare Krishna’, finds its roots in the teachings of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Eminent personalities have concluded that Sri Chaitanya’s life & teachings have no parallel in human history. Sri Chaitanya’s pastimes defy the investigative and the descriptive abilities of phenomenologists and psychologists of religious experience.
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu – External reasons for His advent:
Lord Chaitanya though, except for a few rare occasions, had never revealed His identity as the Supreme Lord.He forever remained absorbed in the mood of a devotee.There were several reasons for Lord Chaitanya to appear in this world which have been revealed in detail by Srila Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami in his nectarian composition, Sri Chaitanya Caritamrta. He writes that Sri Krishna after enacting the sweet pastimes of Vrindavana, pondered over how He had not bestowed the science of unalloyed devotion unto the Supreme, for a long long time.The entire world worships Him in a mood of reverence, strictly following the rules and regulations ordained in the scriptures.However such a worship does not please Him very much ,as spontaneous loving attachment, which is the very essence of a relationship, is absent in such a worship.
Aishwarya jnanete saba jagat misrita
Aishwarya sithila preme nahi mora prita
(Chaitanya Caritamrta, adi -3.16)
The general populace is very much aware of the six absolute opulences of the Supreme Lord (strength, beauty,wealth, knowledge, fame, renunciation) and hence they visualize and worship the Lord reverentially in His opulent form.Though one who worships this opulent form of the Lord achieves liberation and a destination in the Vaikuntha planets (spiritual world), yet such a person, is largely ignorant of the ecstatic sweet mellows as experienced by the elevated devotees of Vrindavana. The devotees of Vrindavana are always immersed in a mood of spontaneous loving relationship with the Supreme.The Lord now wanted to freely bestow this Supreme benediction of unalloyed devotional service, the highest ecstasy of spirituality, the treasure of the residents of Vrajabhumi (Vrindavan) ,to one and all. He wanted to distribute this Supreme science of Krishna consciousness, receiving which nothing else remains to be achieved, to all the fallen souls of this age of Kali, irrespective of their caste,creed or qualification. Encapturing this deep mood and mission of the Lord ,Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura sings –
atyanta durlabha prema karibare dana,
sikhaya sharanagati bhakatera prana
To bestow this most rare form of divine love, Sri Chaitanya teaches us to surrender, which is the life of all the devotees.
Lord Chaitanya is hence also referred to as ‘Maha vadanya’ or the most munificent ,as He is the most merciful incarnation of the Supreme.
Confidential Reasons for Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s appearance:
Apart from propagating the holy names of the Supreme Lord (Krishna) and the science of unconditional devotional service, there was another confidential reason why Lord Chaitanya had descended in this world.The Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krishna possessed an intense desire to relish the supreme transcendental bliss that Srimati Radharani experienced by serving Him. Krishna is the Supreme Enjoyer, however, Srimati Radhika, the Supreme enjoyed, experiences a higher degree of ecstasy by serving Sri Krishna.This is something that bewildered even the Supreme Lord and He wanted to experience this first hand, in order to properly appreciate Radharani’s position. He also wanted to understand the transcendental mellow of Himself and how He was a reservoir of all sweetness that drove His devotees crazy.Hence taking up the mood (bhava) and the golden bodily complexion (kanti) of Srimati Radharani, Sri Krishna descended as Lord Chaitanya in this holy land of Navadvipa.Navadvipa was perceived and created by Srimati Radharani Herself to provide pleasure to Her worshipable master. Sri Chaitanya’s heart was an image of Srimati Radhika’s emotions – greatly turbulent with the feelings of union (sambhoga) and separation (vipralambha) with Krishna. Hence, it is stated that there is no difference between Lord Chaitanya and the combination of Sri Krishna and Srimati Radharani (Sri Krishna Chaitanya ,Radha Krishna Nahe anya). Sri Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Thakura exclaims that Sri Chaitanya is not simply Krishna or simply Radhika. Instead, He is the intense embrace of Sri Radha and Krishna. Such is the intensity of their embrace that the divine couple becomes inseparable and merges into one form. Sri Krishna is then ornamented with the deep mood of Radharani and gets completely covered by Her bodily effulgence.Such is the Supreme position of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
One should however not confuse these transcendental emotions with the feelings that we experience in our day to day life in relation to other people or any object.It must be pointed out here, that both union and separation from the Supreme Lord produces different states of ecstasy within a devotee.In fact the ecstasy in the mood of separation from the Supreme, is even higher than that in union.This is exactly opposite to what we experience in relation to the petty things of this material world.These uncontrollable feelings became more and more manifested within Lord Chaitanya as His pastimes progressed.During the later stages of His pastime at Gambhira (where Sri Chaitanya resided in Puri) , He was so greatly obsessed with the madness of separation from Krishna, that He exhibited the highest symptoms of ecstasy.
The dire situation of India before Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had appeared in this world:
Before Sri Chaitanya had appeared in Navadvipa, its residents were largely preoccupied with material pursuits.People were egoistic about their material possessions and lacking in God consciousness.Those who engaged in discussing Bhagavad Gita or Srimad Bhagavatam, did not touch upon its essence of devotional service. The holy names of Krishna were nowhere to be heard in the entire town of Navadvipa. Being absorbed in the illusory potency of the Lord, people remained in forgetfulness of their eternal master. They misused their wealth in extravagant wedding ceremonies of their children.
Dambha kari visya-hari puje kon yana
Puttali karoye keho diya bahu dhana
Dhana nashto kare putra kanyara bibhaya
Eimata jagatera byartha kala yaya
(Chaitanya Bhagavata, Adi, 2.65-66)
Feeling pity upon these suffering souls, the devotees prayed to Lord Krishna for their deliverance.Sri Advaita Acharya, who is fifty years elder to Lord Chaitanya, was one such devotee.Sri Advaita was the combined incarnation of the potencies of Sada Shiva and Lord Mahavishnu.Seeing the people of the world completely immersed in material activities and suffer greatly the pangs of material miseries, Advaita Acharya became deeply pained at heart.Overwhelmed with compassion, He began teaching Bhagavad gita and Srimad Bhagavatam, by explaining their purports in accordance to the science of devotional service, and decrying the paths of philosophical speculation and fruitive activities.Srila Haridasa Thakura , Srivasa Pandita and several other elderly vaishnavas, regularly congregated at Advaita Prabhu’s house and discussed the glories of the Supreme Lord together. Visvarupa, an expansion of Lord Balaram and the elder brother of Lord Chaitanya, was also among those who graced His audience.
gita bhagavata kahe acharya gosai
jnana-karma nindi kare bhaktira badai
(Chaitanya Caritamrta, Adi , 13.64)
In Sri Chaitanya Mangala it has been recorded that the sad state of affairs of the entire world at that time, caused deep anguish within the heart of Narada muni, a close associate of the Supreme Lord.
Para dukhe katara narada mahamuni
Krishna-katha rasha-gaan dibasha rajani
Krishnakatha lobhe bule samsara bhramiya
Na shunila Krishna-nama jagata chahiya
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutra Khanda, 2.27-28)
Sri Narada Muni, who always sang the nectarian pastimes of Lord Krishna day and night, felt deeply distressed observing the miseries of others. To give out the holy names of Sri Krishna, Narada muni wandered throughout the universe.But the people of this world, being too attached to their material possessions, were not eager to accept the holy names.
The great sage Narada could not hear the chanting of the holy names of Krishna, even after wandering throughout the entire world. He grew greatly astonished. He began thinking of ways and means of delivering the suffering people. Narada thought, “The venomous snake of Kali has bitten everyone and as a result, the people of this world are aflame and mesmerized by their illusory pride. Being solely devoted unto their genitals and belly, the people of this world have totally forgotten Krishna. Their heart is continuously afflicted with the poison of greed, fascination, lust, anger, intoxication, pride, and they needlessly live the philosophy of ‘I’ and ‘mine’. But they cannot make out who they are and what is actually theirs”.Seeing the miserable condition of the people in general in this age of Kali, the great sage Narada, became thoughtful and began considering. Finding no other way to rescue the people, Narada came wandering to the gates of Dwarka, the abode of the Supreme Lord.
Aichhana lokera dukha dekhi mahamuni
Antare chintita haiya mone mone guni
Ghor kalikaale lokera na dekhi nistara
Bhromite bhromite gela Dwarkara daar
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutra Khanda, 2.37-38)
Celestial pastimes – Lord Krishna’s confidential revelations to Narada Muni :
Back in the spiritual world, Lord Krishna enquired from Narada muni regarding the cause of his sorrows. Narada muni expressed himself and answered,” The songs celebrating Your exalted qualities are my nectarian foodstuffs. Hankering to preach Your glories, I traversed the world of birth and death. But I could not hear the chants of Your holy name traveling through the entire material world. Being absorbed in material activities, the people have forgotten You. Being intoxicated and enchanted with pride, the entire world has become devoid of Krishna. This is the cause of my sorrow. I see no means of delivering these (conditioned) people. This is the thought that keeps disturbing my mind”. Hearing Narada’s words, Lord Krishna smiled. He reminded Narada of an earlier vow He had made to devi Katyayani (Goddess Durga) about offering His Mahaprasadam and His causeless mercy unto all denizens of the material world. The Lord added that Rukmini devi had recently enlightened Him about the glories of pure devotional service unto Himself. Rukmini devi had previously revealed how the pure devotees forsake all of their interests, including attachment to their own existence, desire for liberation, etc for the sake of serving the Supreme Lord. One, who lives to drink and relish the nectar of the Lord’s lotus feet, cares for neither day nor night nor any passing season.Hearing Rukmini devi’s words, Lord Krishna had developed an unsatiated desire to taste the ecstatic bliss of His own love. This was something that bewildered even the Supreme Lord and He craved to experience this first hand, especially the deep ecstatic love that Srimati Radharani felt for Him.He wanted to understand how He was a reservoir of all sweetness and the attraction that drove His devotees crazy. Lord Krishna hence announced –
Bhunjibo Premar shukh, bhunjaibo loke
Deena bhab prakash kariba kaliyuge
Bhakata yanera sange bhakati kariya
Nija prema bilaiba isvara haiya
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutrai, 2.101-102)
(Sri Krishna continued) ‘I shall relish the bliss of My own ecstatic love, and I shall make the others taste this ecstasy as well. I shall manifest a form filled with humility in this kaliyuga. Along with the other devotees , I shall engage in devotional service and in the process ,I, the Supreme personality of Godhead, shall freely distribute the ecstatic love for Me to one and all’.
Nija guna sankirtana prakash kariba
Navadvipe Saci-grihe janama lobhibo
Gaura dirgha kalebara, bahu janu-sama
Sumeru sundara tanu ati anupama
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutrai, 2.103-104)
‘I shall manifest the congregational chanting of my glories. I shall take My birth at the house of Saci devi in Navadvipa. My body shall be fair and long ,with my arms reaching up to my knees. The matchless form of mine shall be as beautiful as Mount Sumeru’.
Speaking thus, Lord Krishna manifested His form as Lord Gauranga beholding which Narada muni became overwhelmed with divine rapture. The form of the Lord was as glorious as Mount Sumeru and saturated with pure ecstatic love. Locana das writes in Sri Chaitanya Mangala that this was the first time that the form of Lord Gauranga had been manifest.Beholding the wonderful form of Lord Gauranga, Narada muni felt ecstatic in his heart. A thousand streams of tears gushed from his eyes. The beauty of the Lord resembled the radiance of millions of moons and He shone like a million of effulgent suns. His majestic form was as beautiful as millions of cupids combined together. Lord Krishna roared :
Ghosona karoho shiva brahma adi loke
Gaura avatara muin haba Kaliyuge
Guna sankirtana nama prakash kariba
Nija bhakti prema-rasa sukh prachariba
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutrai, 2.113-114)
(Lord krishna continued) ‘Announce at the residences of Shiva, Brahma, and all the other celestial planets, that I would advent as Lord Gauranga in the age of kali. I shall propagate the congregational chanting of My name and qualities. I shall preach the bliss of tasting the ecstatic love obtained by rendering devotional service unto Me’.
Sri Chaitanya Mangala records the confidential reasons behind Lord Gauranga’s appearance.
Shata shata shakha, bhaktipathe nahi shima
Ekmukh hauk lok, prachariba prema
Nija nija bhakta-jana ara parishad
Prithivi janam giya premabhakti swadh
(Chaitanya Mangala, Sutrai, 2.115-116)
(Lord Krishna continued) “There are presently hundreds and hundreds of branches on the path of devotional service. There is no end to this. I would preach pure love unto the Supreme Lord and unite all these people.
Along with all my devotees and associates, I shall appear on earth. I shall relish the taste of ecstatic loving service unto Myself”.
Biography of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu – In a nutshell :
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s sublime pastimes are broadly classified into three phases- Adi Lila, Madhya Lila and Antya Lila. Of these, the pastimes classified under Adi lila ,spanning across the first 24 years of His life ,before He had accepted Sannyasa, were primarily enacted in the holy dham of Navadvipa.During these first 24 years,which encompasses the pastimes of Sri Gauranga’s childhood (balya), early boyhood (Pauganda) ,later boyhood (Kaishore) and youth (yauvana), the Lord enchanted the pious residents of Navadvipa dham with His heart melting pastimes. It was during these years that the Lord had manifested the blissful pastimes of His marriage (refer – ‘The worshipable deity of Srimati Vishnupriya devi- Sri Dhameswar Mahaprabhu Temple, Navadvipa (Koladvipa)’). The mesmerizing sankirtana pastimes at the house of His eternal associate ,Sri Srivasa Pandita, also occurred during this time (refer – ‘Srivasa Angan ,Mayapur ,Navadvipa – Part 1: where Lord Gaurahari eternally performs His ecstatic pastimes’).
It is only by the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord that one gets the rare opportunity to gain entrance into this cintamani (spiritual) dham of Navadvipa and associate with its pious residents.This land is mingled with the dust of the Lord’s lotus feet, and it is only by the blessings of our spiritual master and the mercy of Sri Gaurasundara, that we attempt to write a few lines in its glorification.
Lord Chaitanya, or Nimai as He was popularly known as, grew up to be a mischievous boy who would tease and taunt the other netizens. He would pick up fights and could not be defeated in any quarrel. Every day after finishing His studies at noon, Nimai would go and happily bathe in the holy Ganges. Countless people, including householders, sannyasis, distinguished gentlemen and children would accompany the Lord in these water pastimes. Nimai was an exceedingly intelligent student who could grasp His teacher, Gangadas Pandita’s words, just by hearing them once. The other students became His followers simply by attending to His clever arguments. Navadvipa, being the seat of learning in those days, was full of educators. All of their students gathered in the Ganges after class and quarreled with each other. Nimai proceeded from one bathing Ghat to another, trying to find an audience of students with whom He could debate and argue. But no one could defeat the Lord when it came to debates. Going forward, Lord Chaitanya had debated with some of the most eminent Vedic scholars of His day – Kesava Kashmiri, Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya, and Prakashananda Sarasvati. The Lord was able to convince each one of them that the devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of God is superior to any other philosophical system.
After accepting the renounced order of life (Sannyasa), Lord Chaitanya left Navadvipa and shifted to Jagannatha Puri, where He spent the rest of His life. He had preached widely across India and inaugurated the sankirtana movement or the congregational chanting of the holy names of Lord Krishna.
Lord Chaitanya’s Teachings in a Nutshell :
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had taught that we are not our bodies; instead we are spirit souls who are entrapped in these bodies of matter. In this precarious condition that we call life, we are actually striving to satisfy our innate spiritual desires while interacting with this world of matter through our material senses. The senses of our material body are prone to be attracted to matter. However our identity being spiritual, our satisfaction and fulfillment lies in interacting with the world of spirit. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explained that living entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, the supreme spirit and it is his natural tendency to render selfless devotional service unto his eternal spiritual Lord. It is due to the absence or forgetfulness of this natural tendency to render selfless devotional service unto the Supreme Spirit, that the living entity gradually develops innumerable material hankerings by pursuing which or by enjoying which, a living entity foolishly thinks that he can obtain the unadulterated spiritual bliss that he had been searching throughout.
Hence a materialist who aspires to indulge or who indulges in gross material sense gratification has no escape from this quagmire of unending sensual desires which only serve in complicating his life and further deteriorates his consciousness.
He only ends up being frustrated though because he does not obtain what he has been originally and eternally searching for – which is unadulterated spiritual bliss which can be obtained only by rendering selfless devotional service.
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu gave an analogy. He compared pure devotional service unto the supreme Lord to the all-illuminating sun while he compared one’s service unto his own senses to the shadow. He explained that where there is sun there cannot be any shadows.
Krishna surya sama, maya haya andhakara, Yahan Krishna, tahan nei mayara adhikara
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had instructed us to chant the Hare Krishna Mahamantra. This Hare Krishna Mahamantra finds its mention in the Kali santarana upanishad. It has been described as the supreme deliverer of the living entities in this day and age. Repeated chantings of this Hare Krishna Mahamantra cleanses the dust accumulated in our consciousness for millions and millions of lifetimes and helps evoke the essential spiritual emotions that form the very basis of our existence. By the mercy of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu this Hare Krishna Mahamantra has spread all over the world today. The sixteen syllables of the ‘Hare Krishna Mahamantra’ which is the ‘Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’ are not ordinary sound vibrations. They are fully endowed with the power and the qualities of the Supreme Lord. Regular chanting of this Hare Krishna mahamantra cleanses the impurities from our heart and helps bathe soul, body and mind in divine bliss. Mahaprabhu taught universal fraternity and inspired a spirit of brotherhood amongst devotees. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had taught that human thoughts should never be shackled with sectarian views. Sectarianism , by the way, is a product of one’s own bodily conception of life. His teachings are universal and acceptable to all irrespective of one’s ethnicity, race, culture, education, gender, etc.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s causeless mercy :
Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the most munificent incarnation of the Supreme. Lord Gaurahari freely gives what no other incarnation of the Supreme Lord has ever given before – the ecstatic pure love of God. He does not consider one’s qualifications or background or pedigree before bestowing this supreme gift upon them, receiving which one achieves the ultimate perfection of his human life.This ecstatic love of God eludes the great demigods like Brahma, Shiva and Indra. Even Lakshmi devi, the wife of Lord Narayana, hankers to receive it. A yogi cannot achieve it , even after performing severe austerities for thousands of years. A Jnani cannot smell it even after analysing the whole of the vedic scriptures. This ecstatic love of God is extremely rare but it can be easily achieved by the causeless mercy of Lord Gauranga. That is why lord Chaitanya is known to be the essence of all the other incarnations of the Supreme – ‘Avatara sar Gaura avatara’.
Lord Narayana reveals this secret of all secrets to Devi Katyayani (Durga) :
E mor antara hiya, tomare kahila iha
Sambari rakhoho nija mone
Saba avatara sar , Kali Gora avatara
Nistariba lok nijagune
(Chaitanya Mangala, text 272)
(Lord Narayana continued) ‘Now I have revealed my heart to you. Please keep this secret carefully locked away in your heart. Lord Gauranga, who shall appear in this age of kali, is the essence of all the other incarnations of the supreme. By the strength of His transcendental qualities, He shall deliver all people in Kali Yuga’.
That is why Sri Chaitanya Chandramrita states :
Rakso-daitya-kulam hatam kiyad idam yogadi-vartma-kriya-
Margo va prakati-kritah kiyad idam sristy adhikam va kiyat
Mediny-uddharanadikam kiyad idam premojjvalaya maha-
Bhakter vartma-karim param bhagavatas Chaitanya-murtim stumah
(Chaitanya Chandramrita, Text 7)
What benefit did the world derive when the incarnations of the supreme Lord like Ramachandra, Nrsimha, and many others killed so many raksasa and Daityas ? What was the benefit derived when Lord kapila and other incarnations reveal the paths of sankhya and yoga ? Is it of great glory that Lord Brahma and other guna-avataras create, maintain and destroy the material universes ? How auspicious is it that Lord Varahadeva lifted and rescued the earth from the garbhodaka ocean ? We do not consider these pastimes to be so important. The most important of all things is that Lord Chaitanya has revealed the great splendour of pure ecstatic love for Himself. Let us glorify that Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Along with His associates, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has manifested the most blissful , heart rending pastimes that has ever been witnessed in human history. In fact, some of the eternal associates of the Lord have experienced a greater degree of transcendental ecstasy being part of the pastimes of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, as compared to being part of Sri Krishna’s vrindavana pastimes, as confirmed in the below verse.
Ati aparupa leela prakashila prabhu
Chari yuge adbhut katha nahi shune kabhu
(Chaitanya Mangala , 1.94)
– Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu had manifested the most wonderful incomparable pastimes, never heard before in any of the four yugas.
Sri Chaitanya Chandramrita confirms that obtaining the causeless mercy of Lord Gauranga is the ultimate perfection in the life of a spiritual practitioner. He, who achieves it, hankers for nothing else in this entire creation. The heavenly abodes and the pursuits of liberation appear very insignificant to such a fortunate soul.
Kaivalyam narakayate tri dasa pur akasha puspayate
Durdantendriya kala sarpa patali protkhata damstrayate
Visvam purna sukhayate vidhi mahendradis ca kitayate
Yat karunya kataksa vaibhav-avatam tam Gauram eva stumah
(Chaitanya Chandramrita, text 5)
For those who have attained the merciful sidelong glance of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, impersonal liberation (merging into the brahmajyoti) becomes as painful as going to hell, the heavenly cities of the demigods seem to be as trivial as mere flowers floating in the sky, the venomous and poisonous fangs of the untamable black snakes of the senses become extracted and uprooted,the whole world which is otherwise full of misery becomes full of supreme joy and the exalted positions of Brahma, Indra and all the demigods become as insignificant as those of tiny insects. Let us glorify that supremely merciful Lord Gauranga.
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